Prior to the launch of Amazon Fresh in Germany, many e-commerce observers expected brick-and-mortar grocery retailers to do everything in their power to fight back with their own offers and services. This prediction has not come true. Several of the big retail chains developed digital strategies and experimented with online delivery services. However, some (Lidl, Kaufland, Real) very quickly abandoned these efforts again, when they didn’t instantly turn a profit, while others (e.g. Aldi) didn’t even try to compete.