The term photobiological risk refers to the potential of light, particularly at the extreme ends of the visible spectrum, to harm the eye. At the blue end of the spectrum we are concerned with the harmful effects of ultra-violet light, while at the red end of the spectrum we are looking for harmful infra-red light.
In consideration of the hazards posed to skin and eye, three exposure scenarios are taken into account: exposure of the skin, exposure of the front surface of the eye (cornea, conjunctiva and lens) and exposure of the retina at the back of the eye.
EN 62471-2008 is a standard that deals with photobiological risk. Due to the potentially serious nature of this hazard, third party tests are required to determine which risk group products should be classified into.
Risk Group 0
Luminaires present no photobiological hazard
Risk Group 1
Luminaires present no hazard due to the normal behavioural limitations of a person when exposed to a light source.
Risk Group 2
Luminaires present no hazard due to peoples aversion response to very bright light sources, or due to thermal discomfort.
Risk Group 3
Luminaires that fall within this risk group cannot be used in general lighting service.
Through careful selection of the LED and the phosphor coating used it is possible to eliminate the harmful light from an LED light source. Reggiani is committed to eliminating this risk and as a result of very careful selection and test procedures all of our luminaires fall into Risk Group 0 and pose no photobiological hazard.
With Chip-on-Board technology, multiple LEDs are packaged together as one single lighting module, allowing up to 10 times more chips to be mounted in a small area when compared to previous techniques.
Due to the small size of the LED chip, COB technology allows for a much higher packing density than surface mount technology. This results in higher light output intensity and greater uniformity for the user.
One of the advantages of this mounting method is that it dramatically reduces the surface area of the LED package. This enables us to achieve greater optical control, due to the smaller light source, as well as notably reduced glare from a smaller surface area.
Another benefit of COB technology is better packaging of the phosphor coating required to produce a high quality light source. In particular, it reduces the volume required to mount the phosphor, which can now be combined with high temperature silicone to produce a phosphor coating that remains stable over the life of the product.
Consequently, as a result of using these stable LED components, we can ensure that our products deliver stable light quality over their life, avoiding some of the colour shift issues between adjacent luminaires that were experienced with earlier LED solutions.
They also provide more efficient heat dissipation and require a smaller portion of the board space, making them suitable for a wide variety of lighting applications.
In addition, the use of COB technology supports greater design flexibility, improved light distribution and simpler manufacturing processes. All of these combine to add value to the end product for our customers.
The term general lighting or ambient lighting refers to the background levels of light in a particular space. In the majority of workspaces the minimum level of general lighting is determined in line with best practice guides to ensure safety and enable everyday visual tasks to be performed comfortably and efficiently.
General lighting may be provided solely by artificial lighting or a combination of artificial and natural light. In such cases it is now becoming increasingly common to adjust the level of artificial lighting in line with the amount of natural daylight entering space to maintain minimum levels while reducing energy consumption.
The introduction of new light sources such as LED has also enabled the colour temperature of artificial lighting to more closely resemble natural daylight, thereby creating a more natural feel to the lighting in the space. When combined with sophisticated control systems the colour of the general lighting can also be varied during the course of the day to more closely mimic natural daily and seasonal variation in daylight.
In applications such as retail the general lighting provides a background against which accent lighting is used to highlight specific displays of merchandise. In such cases the interaction between general and accent lighting is essential in creating the right ambience to support the shopping experience.
In other workspaces the general lighting may be supplemented with task lighting to provide higher light levels or specific colour rendering properties for specific tasks.
WE ARE REGGIANI, THE ILLUMINATION COLLECTIVE Established in 1957, Reggiani is now an International benchmark in the lighting industry, a community of lighting experts that provides its customers with cutting-edge technological solutions with an open, collaborative and problem solving approach. The constant development of innovative products and the expertise gained in over 50 years of activity in the field has outlined an increasingly open exchange with the world of lighting designers and architects, with whom Reggiani has established a relationship funded on sharing ideas and best practices and to whom Reggiani provides solutions and support to meet any creative requirement. Reggiani has a widespread distribution in 80 Countries worldwide and its offices in Italy, USA, UK, China, France and Russia cover an area of 110,000 m2, including areas devoted to production, offices, showrooms and warehouses.
For further information: www.reggiani.net www.reggianiusa.com Twitter: @reggianilight #theilluminationcollective